##### volume **II:** Synopsis

#### Part II: A brief history of dynamics

### page 13: Galileo Galilei

(1564-1642)

The rise of scientific investigation based on observation of the world led to a linguistic revolution. Students of nature found it necessary to extend natural languages with technical terminology in order to name all the things they found. Galileo saw that the natural philosopher needed to add mathematics to natural language as well. He wrote '*Philosophy is written in this grand book - the Universe, which stands continually open before our gaze. But the book cannot be understood unless one first learns to comprehend the language and to read the alphabet in which it is composed. It is written in the language of mathematics . . .*'. Galilei, page 238.

Galileo was a skilled instrument maker as well as a natural scientist. He made telescopes that showed him the mountains on the Moon and the phases of Venus. The mountains showed that the Moon was rather similar to Earth, and not composed of some heavenly element as many had assumed. The phases of Venus could be interpreted to show that Venus revolved around the Sun in an orbit inside the orbit of the Earth. History of the telescope - Wikipedia

Many of the inferences drawn from the Bible by Christian theologians were rather far fetched. The Israelites had to conquer the existing inhabitants, often with Yahweh's help, when they took over their Promised Land:

Joshua spoke to Yahweh, the same day that Yahweh delivered the Amorites to the Israelites. Joshua declaimed:Sun, stand still over Gibeon

and, moon, you also over the vale of Aijalon.

And the sun stood still, and the moon halted,

till the people had vengeance over their enemies. Joshua10:12-13

Following the ancient Greeks, the medieval theologians took this as definite evidence that the Sun moved round the Earth, rather than the Earth around the Sun.

The Church prosecuted Galileo for his opinions, but it could not stop the birth of science. Theology, once the leading edge of science, showed itself unable to adapt to modern developments. In the Church, faith in Scripture continued to outweigh faith in experience, a measure of its power over the people. Theology became an intellectual backwater, and in its place empirical science has come to dominate our interpretation of the world in which we find ourselves. Galileo affair - Wikipedia

Galileo and his contemporaries also began to use rulers and clocks to measure the behaviour of moving bodies, and so brought us into the era of science based on instrumental measurement. He saw that, at least from a physical and astronomical point of view, the best language to describe the behaviour of the world was mathematics. The mathematical expansion of natural language is a central theme of science and finds its place in scientific theology.

Galileo's observation of the importance of mathematics was not new. For thousands of years mathematics, particularly arithmetic and geometry, had been part of everyday trade, architecture and surveying. We weight, measure and count commodities, adding, subtracting, multiplying and dividing to to model costs, profits and losses. Babylonian mathematics - Wikipedia, Needham

Since Galileo's time mathematics has grown enormously beyond the simple arithmetic and geometry we use in finance, trade and engineering. We explore this power in the remainder of this synopsis, gradually working toward the conclusion that the gigantic complex structures which we are able to describe with mathematical language show us the way to constructing models that approach the size of God.

The purpose of this site is to bring theology back into the mainstream of science. The hypothesis that the universe is divine implies that all experience is experience of God. If this is so, we can give theology the scientific independence and certainty necessary for it to cut itself free of any institution no matter how venerable.

In many ways, human natural language is too restricted to talk about the whole divine Universe. Mathematics gives us a window onto something bigger. With the added advantage that because mathematics transcends natural languages, it is not prone to get lost in translation. So we are looking for ways to create a mathematical theology in the Galilean tradition. This is so because mathematics has grown beyond measures of size into the world of logical computation and communication. The proper arena for mathematical study of god is metamathematics, that part of mathematics concerned with mathematical study of the powers and limitations of mathematics. Metamathematics - Wikipedia, Kleene

(revised 29 March 2013)